3 Types of Printed Circuit Boards

The printed circuit board (PCB) is an electric circuit with electronic components and a common feature in a wide range of devices, such as radar systems, radios and beepers. It is constructed in several different ways to match its intended use. Here are three main types of printed circuit boards:

Single side

The single side board is the least complex option and includes a one-sided layer of substrate. This board is built with the electrical components and parts attached to one side and on the other are the copper traces. The use of copper is favored because it is a great electrical conductor. The copper layer is often protected by a special solder mask. Also, a silkscreen coating is a further feature to help mark the different components on the board. It is a useful board for the most basic electronics and will be used by the at-home hobbyists in their first electronics projects. The single side board is relatively low-cost to manufacture compared to the other types. But, this board with its simple design means it has plenty of limitations and is far from being the most used in the industry.

Double sided

The double-sided board is the standard choice for a wide range of applications. This board has metal conductive layers, components and parts mounted to both sides. Also, the board has holes to make it easy for circuits on each side to connect. The different parts are connected using tiny wires that pass through the holes on the board. The wires are soldered in place to give a strong and reliable hold. A further option to connect the two sides is through-hole technology. This method has the ability to create devices that run at faster speeds and less weight. They use small leads that are permanently soldered to the board instead of using the separate wires.

Multi layered

The multi layered board is built with two or more layers with each separated by insulation. The standard size is in the region of 4 to 10 layers, although there are boards with up to 42 layers. This is the preferred type of board for the most complex electronic configurations. The different boards are connected using wires passing through the individual holes. They are very helpful for minimizing issues with space and weight. The preferred use is likely to include handheld devices, space probe equipment, medical machinery, servers and computers.

Necessity of a Water Treatment Plant for Businesses

Water can be a highly expensive commodity for the manufacturers and industrial business owners if they use the water provided by the government only. However, it can be made much more affordable if they get access to a water provisioning system where water gets treated well so that it can be made suitable for industrial use. The need for pure water at affordable costs necessitates the requirement of a water treatment plant in almost all the business units.

Water treatment can be described as a process used to make water acceptable for the desired end-use. It is generally used for drinking, washing, medical, industrial, manufacturing among many other uses. The main goal of this process is to remove contaminants from water. A presence of these contaminants will degrade the quality of water, making it harmful for drinking and commercial purposes.

If you drink impure water, it might not affect you initially but will prove to be hazardous when taken in large quantity. Similarly, products made by using impure water can harm the health of the customers over a period of time.

Water treatment process can be highly beneficial for an industrial or manufacturing plant not only because it ensures a better quality of output but it also reduces maintenance needs. It also increases the overall efficiency & output. It is important to remember that with the use of machines wear and tear is also common.

But if impure water is supplied to industries, it can lead to a faster degradation of machinery, pipes and other equipment. Hence, when the water is impure it will increase the maintenance charges that comes with sudden degradation of machinery. So, it is necessary to install the water treatment plant if you want your machinery operating efficiently and safely.

  • When pure water is used in operations, the processes will become more efficient and the employees will be happier. Happier employees would, in turn, be more productive.
  • You should also make the employees happy by providing them with safe and pure water to drink, which is necessary their overall well-being by installing a water purification system for them onsite.

There are some many contaminants present in water which are potentially dangerous and harmful for human & machine health. Therefore, people and business owners should use only purified water which has gone through a water filtration process like reverse osmosis. Always remember that for a business to achieve success it should ensure that efficiency and safety go hand in hand.

Top 10 Problems When Using Regulating Valves

1. Why is the two-seat valve prone to oscillation when working under small opening conditions?

For single-core valves, when the medium is flow-open type, they’re stable. When the medium is flow-closed type, they’re unstable. There’re two valve cores in the two-seat valve. The lower core is in flow-closed condition while the upper core is in flow-open condition. In this case, under small opening conditions, the flow-closed type of valve core will easily cause oscillation of the valve. This is why two-seat valves can be used for small opening conditions.

2. Why can’t double-sealing valves be used as sanitary shut-off valves?

Two-seat valve core has the advantage of balanced force double-sealing valve structure, allowing a large pressure difference. And its shortcoming is that the two sealing surfaces cannot be in good contact at the same time, causing a large leakage. If it’s purposefully and mandatorily used in shut-off occasions, the effect won’t be good, even if a lot of improvements have been made on it. (such as double-sealing sleeve valve)

3. Why does the straight stroke sanitary regulating valve have a poor anti-blocking performance and rotary stroke regulating valve have a good anti-blocking performance?

The core of straight stroke valve is vertical throttle, but the flow direction of the medium is horizontal. So there must be lots of twists and turns in valve cavity flow channel, making the flow paths of the valve very complex. Therefore, there’re a lot of blind zones that provide space for deposition of the medium, which in the long run causes clogging. The throttle direction of rotary stroke valve is horizontal, the medium horizontally flows in and out, which can easily take away unclean medium. Meanwhile, the flow path is simple, and there’s little room for medium deposition, so rotary stroke valve has a good anti-blocking performance.

4. Why is the stem of straight stroke regulating valve thin?

It involves a simple mechanical principle: the bigger the sliding friction, the smaller the rolling friction. The stem of straight stroke valve moves up and down. If the stuffing slightly pressed a little tighter, it would wrap up the stem tightly, resulting in a large hysteresis. To this end, the valve stem is designed to be thin and small and the stuffing use PTFE that has a small friction coefficient in order to reduce the hysteresis. But the problem that derives from this is that a thin valve stem is easy to bend and the stuffing has a short service life. To solve the problem, the best way is to use rotary valve stem, a regulating valve similar to the rotary stroke ones. Its valve stem is 2 to 3 times thicker than that of the straight stroke valve. And it uses graphite stuffing that has a long service life. The valve stem stiffness is good, the service life of stuffing is long, the friction torque and hysteresis are instead small.

5. Why does the rotary stroke valve have a relatively large shut-off pressure difference?

It’s because the torque on the rotating shaft produced by the force of medium on valve core or valve plate is very small.

6. Why is the service life of desalination water medium short when using rubber lined butterfly valve and fluorine lined diaphragm valve?

The medium of desalination water contains low concentrations of acid or alkali, which are pretty corrosive to rubber. The corrosion of rubber is exemplified by expansion, aging and low strength. The poor effect of using rubber lined butterfly valve and diaphragm valve is actually caused by the intolerance of corrosion of rubber. Rear rubber-lined diaphragm valve is improved to be the fluorine lined diaphragm valve that has a good tolerance of corrosion. But the lining of diaphragm of fluorine lined diaphragm valve can’t withstand the up-and-down folding and is broken, resulting in mechanical damage and shorter service life of the valve. Now the best way is to use water treatment special ball valves, which can be used for 5 to 8 years.

7. Why should shut-off valves try to use hard sealing?

Sanitary shut-off valves require the leakage to be as low as possible. The leakage of soft sealing valve is the lowest, so the shut-off effect is certainly good. But it’s not wear-resistant, not reliable. Judging from the double standard of small leakage and reliable sealing, soft sealing shut-off is not as good as hard sealing shut-off. Take full-featured ultra-light regulating valve for example, it’s sealed and piled with wear-resistant alloy for protection, highly reliable, has a leakage rate of 10 to 7, all of which already have met the requirements of shut-off valves.

8. Why can’t sleeve valves replace single-seat and double-seat valves?

Sleeve valves, which first appeared in the ’60s, were widely used in the ’70s worldwide. Sleeve valves account for a large percentage in petrochemical equipment imported during the ’80s. At that time, many people thought sleeve valves could replace single-seat and double-seat valves to become the second-generation products. Until now, that is not the case. Single-seat valves, double-seat valves and sleeve valves are equally used. That’s because sleeve valves only improve the way of throttle, have better stability and maintenance than single-seat valves. But its weight, anti-blocking and leakage indicator are the same as those of single-seat and double-seat valves.

9. Why is selection more important than computation?

Compare computation with selection, selection is more important and more complicated. Computation is only a simple formula. It’s not the formula itself, but rather the accuracy of given parameters that matters. Selection involves a lot of things, being a bit careless will lead to improper selection, which not only results in the waste of manpower, material, and money, but the effects of use are not good, causing a number of problems in use, such as reliability, service life and quality, etc.

10. Why is piston actuator increasingly used in pneumatic valves?

For pneumatic valves, the piston actuator can make full use of air pressure to make the size of the actuator smaller than that of the film type. The thrust is bigger. The O-ring in the piston is also more reliable than that of the film. All in all, it’s increasingly used.

Understanding Steel Pipes

Stainless steel pipes are one of the best pipes that you can buy. They are loved by many people as they are corrosion resistant. They are also durable thus you don’t need to head to the stores now and then.

Types of steel pipes

There are plenty of these tubes in the market that you can go for. You should note that the different types are ideal for various applications. One of the most common types is corrosion resistant pipes.

From their name, these are units that you install in an area where you require corrosion resistance. These types of pipes are made in a wide range of ways. Some are heat treated while others are annealed. They are also made using different materials. Some are made using chromium and others using ferric.

There are also seamless pipes. These aren’t joined or pasted. During manufacturing, a complete pipe is formed into its final shape. To make the pipe, a solid billet is pushed through a die using a mandrel.

Two other common types are cold forming and welding pipes. Cold forming pipes are those that are manufactured at room temperature and result in hardening of the materials. In welding, the different materials are welded together to form the final pipes. These units come in different sizes and grade and are heavily used in the pipeline industry.

Guide to buying stainless steel pipes

For you to get ideal results from the pipes, you need to buy the right ones. This calls for you to consider some factors when making the purchase. One of the factors to consider is the size of the pipes. The right size to go for depends on the areas you want to use them.

You also need to consider the capabilities of the pipes. While they might seem tough, they have different abilities and can break them if you expose them to situations that they can’t handle. For example, when it comes to construction, consider the weight of the load that you want them to carry. The same thing applies when you are looking to use them for liquid transportation. Don’t use a small pipe in an area where you want to transport large volumes of fluid as the pipe will break.

You also need to consider the quality of the stainless steel pipe. Many companies are manufacturing different types of tubes. To buy the right tubes, take your time to research. As rule of thumb ensure that you buy your pipes from a reputable store.

3D Printing: The Materials Used for 3D Printing

3D printing was developed back in the early 80s but it has seen much growth since the past 10 years. It has now become one of the biggest growth areas in the tech industry and is revolutionising manufacturing covering every industry possible. The 3D printing business is now multi-billion dollar industry and is likely to continue growing at an exponential rate.

3D printing is quite a simple process conceptually, the printers work by printing the chosen material in layers on top of each other, with each layer setting prior to the next pass of the printer.

3D printers have been used to print all sorts of materials from cheap and normal materials to things you would expect to read in a sci-fi book.

For the consumer market, plastics are used exclusively as the materials are cheap to buy, but more importantly, the technology required to print plastic is relatively simple and low cost.

Low-cost 3D printers using plastic tend to use Fused filament fabrication (FFF). This is basically a process where a cord of plastic is heated up to become pliable then fed through the machine layering the plastic. The machines generally use one of the following plastics

PLA (Polylactic Acid) – PLA is probably the easiest material to work with when you first start 3D printing. It is an environmentally friendly material that is very safe to use, as it is a biodegradable thermoplastic that has been derived from renewable resources such as corn starch and sugar canes. This is a similar plastic that is used in compostable bags which safely bio degrade compared to more traditional plastics used in Poly Bags.

ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) – ABS is considered to be the second easiest material to work with when you start 3D printing. It’s very safe and strong and widely used for things like car bumpers, and Lego (the kid’s toy).

PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol Plastic) – PVA plastic which is quite different to PVA Glue (please don’t try putting PVA Glue into your 3D Printer, it definitely won’t work). The popular MakerBot Replicator 2 printers use PVA plastic.

Plastics are used extensively on all levels from consumer to businesses prototyping new products. However, in the business market, there is a huge demand for metal 3D printing. Some printers can use powdered material that is then heated to create a solid. This method is typically Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and this particular technique is why we don’t see consumer metal 3D printing. DMLS requires a huge amount of heat and giant expensive printers to sinter the material together, and while 3D printing a metal object might be expensive compared to mass production, it is incredibly cost efficient for complex and expensive projects. A good example of DMLS based 3D printing is GE Aviation using it to produce 35,000 fuel injectors for its LEAP jet engine.

Using boring materials such as metal is almost archaic in the world of 3D printing now; some companies now do 3D bioprinting which is the process of creating cell patterns in a confined space using 3D printing technologies, where cell function and viability are preserved within the printed construct. These 3D bioprinters have the capacity to print skin tissue, heart tissue, and blood vessels among other basic tissues that could be suitable for surgical therapy and transplantation.

5 Ways Dehumidifiers Can Improve Commercial Food Production

Although making food in your kitchen and making food on a commercial scale might seem much the same, the realities are that they are, in fact, almost completely different. Of course, whilst the end result of both endeavours is (hopefully) delicious food, the way those foodstuffs are produced it wildly different.

From industrial mixers to fully automated moulding and baking machines, the commercial food production industry barely resembles what you might do at home.

So, whilst you might not need a dehumidifier in your home kitchen, you certainly need one if you’re operating a commercial food production company. But why? Here’s five big reasons:

#1 – Improved production speed

If drying is part of the manufacturing process for your business, whether you’re stove drying or dry curing meat, you can waste days, weeks and even months waiting for the process to occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment.

By leaving ambient conditions in place, the natural inconsistency of air humidity will deliver an uneven and unpredictable results which can spoil or halt production. Alternatively, by introducing effective humidity control into an environment you can dramatically increase the speed of your drying procedures.

Indeed, one business was able to reduce their stove drying time from 5 days to 1.5 days, more than doubling the output of their existing stoves and delivering a more consistent end product. Increased drying times naturally lead to a higher level of output, which in turn means more profits.

#2 – Unified production rate

Winter conditions might well offer ideal humidity rates for food manufacturing, but the summer months aren’t as kind. High humidity can slow production to a crawl during the warmer months, so installing a commercial humidity control system is essential. It’ll help level out your production rates and equalise output levels.

#3 – Improved product quality

Humidity can cause a number of number of issues in quality control of food and drink manufacturing. Whether it’s causing dried fruit to clump, bread to become misshapen or plastic to bottles to become distorted in production, humidity can be a real nightmare for quality control.

It doesn’t take a genius to work out why quality control is important for your business, so don’t waste time producing inferior products.

#4 – Reduced costs

All machinery is affected by humidity, and by leaving it unchecked you’re opening the door to condensation on equipment, damp electrical panels and more. By operating a humidity controlled area, you can reduce your spending on vital repairs.

#5 – Superior hygiene

One of the major issues with high humidity is regards hygiene, because with high levels of humidity comes an increased risk of condensation. This, in turn, is followed closely by fungus and mould on both packaging and the product. This can spoil entire batches and result in a product which is unsafe to eat – something every food manufacturing business is keen to avoid.

The Perfect Packaging for Every Product

Whether you talk of fresh food items, dry groceries, machine parts, furniture or hardware, every product needs to be well packaged. The type of packaging best suited to a product depends on a number of factors including cost of the product, perceived value, size, fragility, shelf life etc. Thus, there are a number of materials that can be used to package a product such as paper, polythene, corrugated cardboard, cartons, shrink wrap and pallets.

Why do you need Packaging?

The most obvious reason to package a product carefully, is to protect it while it moves from the factory floor to the retail shops and then to the customer’s house. However, this is not the only reason to focus on packaging. Packaging plays an important role in a customer’s decision making process. The way a product is packaged is the first interaction many customers have with the product and hence this plays an important role in creating a first impression. A well packaged product speaks of attention to detail and helps build trust in a brand name.

Packaging is also important from a marketing perspective. This is because whilst the product itself may offer limited space for branding, a carton or sleeve allows a much larger space for branding thus making the brand name more visible. When it comes to wholesale packaging, cartons are usually left plain. However, it is still possible to brand the cartons by using printed carton tape.

How to Choose the Right Packaging Material

The wrong packaging can put a customer off the product. The first step to packing a product is to select the right material. There are many factors that must be considered when picking packaging materials. These include:

Type of Product- While dry groceries need to be packed in such a way so as to be visible to customers and yet protected against natural elements; product visibility does not matter when packing hardware items or machine parts. A few other product characteristics to keep in mind are sensitivity to light and moisture, shelf life and reaction to other materials.

Cost of the Product- The cost of packaging a product should be in direct relation to the cost of the product and should not exceed it. Thus, whilst clear, polythene bags are sufficient packing for disposable plates, bone chine needs to be packed in boxes with cushion packaging.

How the products are to be shipped- To a certain extent wholesale packaging also plays a role in determining the right material for retail packaging. For example, if the products are going to be packed in a larger carton, puncture resistance is not a high priority. However, if the products are going to be stacked on a pallet, this is a factor that will need to be considered.

Common Types of Packaging

Paper Board

Paper is the cheapest and most ecofriendly way to package a product. Paper is often used in the form of boxes to package low cost items such as stationery or in the form of paper bags for fast food and other consumables.

Polythene

Polythene bags are the most preferred form of packaging for products such as dry groceries and liquids. This is because it is transparent thus allowing the consumer to see the product being purchased and protects the food items from natural elements.

Rigid Plastic

Rigid plastic may be used to package both consumables and non-consumables. This is a chosen packaging material when the product needs to be visible to the consumer and yet protected against shocks and being accidentally dropped etc.

Corrugated cardboard

When it comes to large products such as furniture, it is not possible to fit the piece into a carton. Hence, such products are usually wrapped in corrugate sheets to protect them against bumping into other things or being dropped accidentally.

Steel Cutting Machines

Steel is one of the major commonly used metals in the world. It comprises of Iron and Carbon alloy, and thus it is one of the strongest and hardest metals utilized in the building of infrastructures and industrial manufacture of metallic pieces, for example, car parts and machinery parts. It is resistant to rust, and it is easily bendable. There are many advantages associated with steel, and therefore the skills necessary to make use of it is widely known. From processing to making something out of the metal is critical value information.

Steel cutting is the process by which a steel material is cut and turned into a sizable, proper dimensional piece, fit for its use. Cutting of metal such as steel can be done through various methods and these includes;

· The manual cutting, hacksaw or any cutting hand operated tool, is used to cut the steel manually

· Cutting by machine, this is where machine such as grinders and drillers are used to cut into pieces or cut the core in metal.

· Laser technology. Laser beams burn and cut through the metal.

· Cutting using chemicals, specialized chemical reagents are used for specific metals.

· Erosion technique utilizes a mixture of water and abrasives at a very high force to erode off the metal thus cutting it into the preferred sizes.

The modern technology has embraced machine cutting technology due to its simplicity and precision. These devices also come with a programmable database to ensure that most processes are automated. Therefore, the end product is always appealing. Straight core cutting requires precision and accuracy, and therefore, a particular type of machine has been made for that purpose.

Properties of a Good Steel Core cutting machine;

· The tool should be easy to use and be automated in that, most processes can be adjustable, and any error corrected as soon as it arises.

· It should be able to cut the different core sizes by allowing fitting of different size cutting blades; the changing process should be easy.

· A good machine should require fewer maintenance services.

Conclusion.

Silicon steel commonly used magnetic core is preferred for its great unique energy conserving abilities. Therefore while cutting these cores into the steel metal to be used, care and accuracy are required. Only a good machine can help you in this. The above-listed properties should be considered by any metal factory while ordering and purchasing for the cutting machine; only genuine ones can provide the right services.

5 Energy-Saving Tips For Manufacturers

Are you worried about the current oil prices? If so, you should stop worrying as the price won’t last forever. Actually, OPEC has almost no influence on electricity or natural gas. The fact of the matter is that the old coal-based power plants increased electricity prices in 2016. However, the problem is that energy efficiency is really important for you should you want to stay ahead of the competition. If you are a plant manager and you want to save energy, we suggest that you follow the tips given below.

Process Heating

The US Department of Energy suggests that plant managers can cut down on the heating costs through the implementation of some energy-saving measures. As a matter of fact, process heating includes 30% of the energy consumed in this sector. Therefore, if you save energy in this area, you can make a significant impact.

Moreover, you can monitor and control your air-to-fuel ratio and exhaust gases in order to save a lot of energy. But if your plant requires lots of hot water, it’s a good idea to use a solar-water heating plant to preheat the process water. This is another great way of saving a lot of money.

Motors and Equipment

Machine drives accounts for over 22% of power consumption in the manufacturing sector. If you want to cut down on your operating costs, we suggest that you analyze the system and shaft losses. In addition, you can also consider upgrading to a system that is more efficient.

At times, you may have to replace the equipment to achieve your targets. But you don’t have to spend a huge sum for each upgrade. As a matter of fact, you can hone the mechanical performance of the plant through the alteration of the operational or maintenance procedures.

Lighting

Typically, building-performance experts consider lighting as the main source of energy consumption. For energy saving, you can opt for fluorescent bulbs, fixtures, LED tube lights, and skylights, just to name a few. However, you don’t have to replace all of your lighting systems in order to save energy.

Utilities

You may not want to overlook utilities as far as saving energy is concerned. What you need to do is review your usage plans and then get in touch with the service provider to find out if they can provide alternative procurement or other option that can help you save money.

Actually, some utilities offer attractive incentives for the installation of energy-saving improvements. It’s also a good idea to contact the competitors. You can also negotiate with them to get the best deal.

Employees

For energy efficiency, employee behavior also matters. You may want to let your employees know your goals and progress. Don’t forget to appreciate them for playing a role in the achievement of your goals. You will see that they have great insights. As a matter of fact, studies show that upgrades for energy efficiency help workers become more productive.

Long story short, when you are planning an energy-saving program, you may want to look for opportunities that can help you reduce cost. Next, as the operating costs come down, you can invest in an energy saving infrastructure like a solar energy system. Hopefully, the tips given above will help you save on energy costs.

Three Huge Reasons Humidity Control Is So Important in Industrial Environments

When it comes to industrial environments, there’s no doubt within the industry that maintaining effective control of humidity is essential. It’s a key part of the operation of countless factories across the globe and can make the difference between success and failure in many areas of industrial production.

But why is that the case? After all, humidity has been a constant for as long as there’s been air and plenty of things have been produced in that time, right?

That may be true, but it doesn’t tell the whole story – a story of increasingly complex manufacturing and industrial processes that benefit greatly from tight humidity control. Here’s three huge reasons why industrial environments now live or die by their humidity control.

Staff health and wellbeing

You only need to spend a day outside on a humid day to know that high levels of RH (relative humidity) can have a debilitating effect on your ability to function properly. However, it’s low RH which industrial businesses are keen to avoid.

Low RH can lead to dry and itchy eyes and cause the respiratory system to dry out, leading to dehydration in staff. Additionally, it causes a dramatically increased spread rate of pathogens like the influenza virus, which survives best in low RH environments.

On top of these issues, low RH has been linked to conditions like Sick Building Syndrome and the intensity of chemical pollution, caused by gases from materials used inside industrial buildings.

Taken together, these issues lead to a poor working environment for staff, and can even violate health and safety guidelines within certain nations.

Building maintenance

When water in the air interacts with cold surfaces, it creates condensation. Within industrial premises, which typically feature large amounts of exposed metalwork and very little by way of traditional insulation, this water can have a devastating effect on the health of your building.

By allowing condensation to develop, you encourage the build-up of both rust and mildew on surfaces which can in turn affect both the structural integrity and air quality of your building.

Product output

Industrial manufacturing businesses survive by what they output. Whether that’s car parts of pre-fab buildings, what a business outputs determines its success.

Humidity plays a crucial role in ensuring that products are manufactured to the highest possible standards by eliminating the role that high RH plays in spoilage. Consider, for a moment, that cardboard remains by far the most common material for packaging products of all kinds.

Cardboard, however, is extremely susceptible to high RH environments, absorbing the moisture in the air freely. That damp cardboard is extremely prone to failure and can develop mildew and become structurally weakened, causing damage and spoilage to products.

As such, it’s essential that not only do industrial businesses utilise dehumidification solutions, but that they utilise dehumidifier maintenance services too.